The 42-year-old man succumbed to the illness on Tuesday night.
He was from Khovd province in western Mongolia, the country’s Health Ministry has announced.
It is sparked fears there could be an outbreak across the country which borders China and Russia.
The Health Ministry said that the victim had purchased two dead marmots, ground squirrels which are known to carry fleas that spread the disease, shortly before his death.
Mongolians view marmots as a delicacy and hunt them even though it is illegal.
However, Vladimir Nikiforov, the chief infectious diseases specialist at Russia’s Federal Biomedical Agency, recently described the plague as “absolutely no threat” to their country.
In July, Mongolia quarantined an entire region after identifying two people with symptoms of bubonic plague. The country’s National Center for Zoonotic Diseases has reported that 17 of Mongolia’s 21 provinces are at risk of an outbreak.
In the 1300s, the Bubonic Plague killed 200 million people worldwide.
In the present day, only 650 cases are recorded each year globally and is treated with antibiotics.
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